Artificial intelligence is the replication of human intelligence processes by machines, mainly computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions) and self-correction. Particular applications of AI include expert systems, speech recognition, and machine vision.
Artificial intelligence was cast by John McCarthy, an American computer scientist, in 1956. Today, it is an umbrella term that encompasses everything from robotic method automation to authentic robotics. It has gained prominence recently due, in part, to big data, or the boost in speed, size, and range of data businesses are now collecting. Artificial intelligence can perform tasks such as identifying patterns in the data more efficiently than humans, enabling businesses to gain more insight out of their data.
Types of artificial intelligence:-
Artificial Intelligence can be categorized in any number of ways, but here are the most valuable examples.
This example is from Arend Hintze, a junior professor of integrative biology and computer science and engineering at Michigan State University. He categorizes Artificial Intelligence into four types, from the kind of Artificial Intelligence systems that exist today to sentient systems, which do not yet exist. The categories are as follows:
- Reactive machines: – An example is Deep Blue, the IBM chess program that beat Garry Kasparov in the 1990s. Deep Blue can identify pieces on the chess board and make predictions, but it has no memory and cannot use history experiences to inform future ones. It analyzes achievable moves – its own and its opponent — and chooses the most planned move. Deep Blue and Google’s Alpha GO were designed for narrow purposes and cannot easily be applied to another situation.
- Limited memory: – These Artificial Intelligence systems can use history experiences to inform future decisions. Some of the decision-making functions in autonomous vehicles have been designed this way. Observations used to inform actions happening in the not-so-distant future, such as a car that has changed lanes. These observations are not stored permanently.
- Theory of mind: – This is a psychology term. It refers to the understanding that others have their own beliefs, needs, and intentions that impact the decisions they put together. This kind of AI does not yet exist.
- Self-awareness:- In this category, Artificial Intelligence systems have a sense of self, have awareness. Machines with self-awareness understand their present state and can utilize the information to infer what others are the reaction. This type of AI does not yet exist.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence:-
Artificial Intelligence in healthcare:-The biggest bets are on improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. Companies are applying machine learning to make better and faster diagnoses than humans. One of the best-known healthcare technologies is IBM Watson. It understands natural language and is capable of responding to questions asked of it. The system mines patient data and other available data sources to form a hypothesis, which it then presents with a confidence scoring schema. Other AI applications include chatbots, a computer program used online to answer questions and assist customers, to help schedule follow-up appointments or aiding patients through the billing process, and virtual health assistants that provide basic medical feedback.
Artificial Intelligence in business: – Robotic process automation is being applied to highly repetitive tasks usually performed by humans. Machine learning algorithms are being included in analytics and CRM platforms to uncover information on how to better serve customers. Chatbots have been integrated into websites to give immediate service to customers. Automation of job positions has also become a conversation point among academics.
Artificial Intelligence in education: – Artificial Intelligence can automate grading, giving educators more time. AI can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI tutors can provide additional support to students, ensuring they stay on track. AI could change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.
Artificial Intelligence in finance: – Artificial Intelligence applied to personal finance applications, like Mint or Turbo Tax, is upending financial institutions. Applications such as these could collect personal data and give financial advice. Other programs, IBM Watson being one, have been applied to the process of buying a home. Today, the software performs much of the trading on Wall Street.
Artificial Intelligence in law: – The discovery process, sifting through of documents, in law is frequently overpowering for people. Mechanizing this procedure is a superior utilization of time and a more productive process. New businesses are likewise constructing inquiry and-answer computer assistants that can filter modified to-answer inquiries by analyzing the scientific categorization and ontology-related with a database.
Artificial Intelligence in manufacturing: – This is a region that has been at the cutting edge of fusing robots into the work process. Mechanical robots used to perform single undertakings and were isolated from human laborers, yet as the innovation propelled that changed.